Currently, in our country, about 10% of the population has cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the prevention of cardiovascular disease is very necessary, especially to reduce the risk factors, but it is important to have a reasonable diet and healthy lifestyle.
According to statistics of the World Health Organization, today cardiovascular diseases increase in a worrying way and tend to be younger. Currently, in our country, about 10% of the population has cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the prevention of cardiovascular disease is very necessary, especially to reduce the risk factors, but it is important to have a reasonable diet and healthy lifestyle.
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* When is it called hyperlipidemia?
Blood lipids, also known as blood lipids, include cholesterol and triglycerides.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance called a steroid that is found in cell membranes in all tissues of the body and is transported in the blood plasma. Sources of cholesterol for the body include cholesterol from food and cholesterol synthesized in the body. There are two types of cholesterol: HDL-C is good cholesterol (high density cholesterol), has the effect of protecting blood vessel walls, and LDL-C is bad cholesterol (low density) because they have the ability to cause atherosclerosis. Arterial wall that will narrow the artery, causing hypertension, stroke, cerebrovascular accident, coronary artery insufficiency.
Triglycerides are when free fatty acids are absorbed by the liver, they will be converted into cholesterol, if there is an excess of fatty acids, they will become triglycerides. When there is an imbalance between lipids entering the liver and lipids leaving the liver, fat will accumulate in the liver causing fatty liver.
The standard and presumptive limits for plasma lipid components are as follows: total cholesterol < 5.2mmol/l; LDL-cholesterol <4.0mmol/l; HDL-cholesterol > 1.15 mmol/l; Triglyceride 0.7-1.7 mmol/l is a good limit. Cholesterol (3.5-7.8 mmol); LDL-cholesterol (2.3-6.1 mmol/l); HDL-cholesterol (0.8-1.7); Triglyceride (0.7-1.8 mmol/l) is the standard limit.
* Diet in dyslipidemia.
Maintain ideal weight, need to lose weight if obese. For example, a person with a height of 160cm should have a maximum weight of 60kg, heavier than overweight (weight = height (cm) – 100cm);
Ensure reasonable nutritional composition: According to the recommendation of the National Institute of Nutrition, a nutritious meal is a diet of energy from starch (sugar) accounting for 50-60%; protein (protid) accounts for 10-20%; fats (lipids) because lipids account for 20% of total dietary energy.
Limit foods containing a lot of cholesterol such as animal organs, egg yolks (however, egg whites contain lecithin, which regulates cholesterol metabolism, so people with high blood cholesterol can still use eggs, should limit and need to eat the whole white), reduce beer and alcohol.
Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, fiber and increase physical activity. If total cholesterol is increased and LDL-C (bad cholesterol) is increased: reduce saturated fatty acid intake. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids at levels appropriate to body energy. Encourage the use of foods high in soluble fiber such as fruits, vegetables, oats. Limit foods high in cholesterol.
If there is an increase in triglycerides (normal cholesterol). If obese, priority should be given to reducing body weight and increasing physical activity. Replace refined carbohydrates with complex carbohydrates; encourage fish oil intake; reduce or avoid alcoholic beverages.